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Chronology of Events
Master File: Compiled and researched by Roger Snook, Clute, Texas Congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses
File Revision Date: February 17, 1999
File Revision No. 60
4026 B.C.E. Adam created, see Adam #1 IT-1 pgs. 44-6.
3096 B.C.E. Adam dies
3896 B.C.E. Seth born, see IT-2 pg. 899.
2984 B.C.E. Seth dies
3791 B.C.E. Enosh born, see IT-1 pgs. 729-30.
2886 B.C.E. Enosh dies
3701 B.C.E. Kenan born, see IT-2 pg. 145.
2791 B.C.E. Kenan dies
3631 B.C.E. Mahalalel born, see Mahalalel #1 IT-2 pg. 295.
2736 B.C.E. Mahalalel dies
3566 B.C.E. Jared born, see IT-1 pg. 1256.
2604 B.C.E. Jared dies
3404 B.C.E. Enoch born, see Enoch #2 IT-1 pg. 729.
3039 B.C.E. Enoch ~ [transferred so as not to experience the pangs of death]
3339 B.C.E. Methuselah born, see IT-2 pg. 389.
2370 B.C.E. Methuselah dies ~ [global flood begins in November]
3152 B.C.E. Lamech born, see Lamech #2 IT-2 pg. 192.
2375 B.C.E. Lamech dies
2970 B.C.E. Noah born, see Noah #1 IT-2 pgs. 506-8.
2020 B.C.E. Noah dies
2468 B.C.E. Shem born, see IT-2 pgs. 919-20.
1868 B.C.E. Shem dies
2370 B.C.E. GLOBAL FLOOD ~ [begins in November], see Deluge IT-1 pgs. 609- 12.
2368 B.C.E. Arpachshad born, see IT-1 pg. 179.
1930 B.C.E. Arpachshad dies
2333 B.C.E. Shelah born, see Shelah #1 IT-2 pg. 918.
1900 B.C.E. Shelah dies
2303 B.C.E. Eber born, see Eber #1 IT-1 pg 673.
1839 B.C.E. Eber dies
2269 B.C.E. Peleg born, see IT-2 pg. 595.
a. 2239 B.C.E. Tower of Babel [During the days of Peleg, Jehovah God confused the language of the people working on the Tower of Babel and the building of a mighty city in opposition to Jehovah, the people were scattered taking their god-defying, false religious practices with them. Thus was the beginning of Babylon the Great, the mother of (spiritual) harlots and of the disgusting things of the earth.] See IT-1 pgs. 234-5, also bf pgs. 11-45.
2030 B.C.E Peleg dies
2239 B.C.E. Reu born, see IT-2 pg. 795.
2000 B.C.E. Reu dies
2207 B.C.E. Serug born, see IT-2 pgs. 898-9.
1977 B.C.E. Serug dies
2177 B.C.E. Nahor born, see Nahor #1 IT-2 pg. 462.
2029 B.C.E. Nahor dies
2148 B.C.E. Terah born, see Terah #1 IT-2 pg. 1087.
1943 B.C.E. Terah dies
2018 B.C.E. Abraham born, see IT-1 pgs. 28-32.
1943 B.C.E. ABRAHAMIC COVENANT, see IT-1 pgs. 520-5.
1843 B.C.E. Abraham dies
1918 B.C.E. Isaac born, see IT-1 pgs. 1216-8.
1738 B.C.E. Isaac dies
1858 B.C.E. Jacob born, see Jacob #1 IT-1 pgs. 1242-7.
1711 B.C.E. Jacob dies
1750 B.C.E. Joseph sold into slavery in Egypt, See IT-2 pgs. 106-11.
b. 1613 B.C.E. Job's trial [Job tested by Satan when Chaldeans raid Job's 3,000 camels] See IT-2 pg. 81.
a. 1600 B.C.E. Egypt attains prominence as FIRST WORLD POWER. See IT-1 pgs. 686-99, also bf pg. 60.
1513 B.C.E. EXODUS FROM EGYPT Book of Genesis written by Moses 1513 B.C.E.; Books of Exodus & Leviticus written by Moses 1512 B.C.E.
c. 1500 B.C.E. [Hinduism originates in the Indus River Valley (now part of Pakistan) had its beginnings when an Indo-European people known as the Aryans moved into this area about 1500 B.C.E.] See g89 4/8 pgs. 24-27, also See sh pgs. 95-128.
1473 B.C.E. Conquest of Canaan [Israel is ruled by Jehovah, 13-judges i.e. Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Barak, Gideon, Tola, Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, Samson, and Eli. Total 356-years] Books of Numbers & Deuteronomy written by Moses 1473 B.C.E.; Book of Joshua written by Joshua c. 1450 B.C.E.; Book of Job written by Moses c. 1473 B.C.E. ~ See IT-2 pgs. 134-6.
1117 B.C.E. Saul begins his rule [40-yrs.] Prophet: Samuel / High Priest: Ahijah, Ahimelech [Samuel completes Book of Judges c. 1100 B.C.E.; Samuel completes
Book of Ruth c. 1090 B.C.E.; Book of 1-Samuel completed c. 1078 B.C.E.] For detail of the kings, see IT-2 pgs. 170-4.
1077 B.C.E. David begins his rule [40-yrs.] Prophets: Nathan, Gad, Zadok / High Priest: Abiathar [Gad & Nathan complete writing 2-Samuel c. 1040 B.C.E.] See IT-1 pgs. 585-91.
1037 B.C.E. Solomon begins his rule [40-yrs.] Prophets: Nathan, Ahijah, Iddo / High Priest: Abiathar, Zadok [Construction of temple begins 1034 B.C.E., construction completed 1027 B.C.E., Song of Solomon complete c. 1020 B.C.E., Book of Ecclesiastes complete b. 1000 B.C.E.] See IT-2 pgs. 986-93.
1034 B.C.E. BEGINNING OF TEMPLE CONSTRUCTION See IT-2 pgs. 1076-83.
997 B.C.E. Rehoboam begins his rule [17-yrs.] Prophets: Shemeiah, Iddo [Shishak of Egypt invaded Judah and took treasures from the temple in Jerusalem]. See IT-2 pgs. 767-8.
997 B.C.E. KINGDOM DIVIDED
TWO-TRIBE KINGDOM OF JUDAH [exist 390-years]
TEN-TRIBE KINGDOM OF ISRAEL [exist 257-years]
980 B.C.E. Abijah begins his rule [3-yrs.] Prophet: Iddo, see IT-1 pgs. 22-3.
977 B.CE. Asa begins his rule [41-yrs.] Prophets: Azariah, Oded, Hanani [Zerah the Ethiopian came against Judah in war 967 B.C.E.] See IT-1 pgs. 183-5.
936 B.C.E. Jehoshaphat begins his rule [25-yrs.] Prophets: Jehu (son of Hanani), Eliezer, Jahaziel / High Priest: Amariah, see Jehoshaphat #3, IT-1 pgs. 1271-2.
913 B.C.E. Jehoram begins his rule [8-yrs.] Prophet: Elijah, see Jehoram #3, IT-1 pgs. 1270-1.
906 B.C.E. Ahaziah begins his rule [1-yr.] High Priest: Jehoiada, see IT-1 pgs. 62-3.
904 B.C.E. Queen Athaliah usurped the throne and ruled [6-yrs.] See IT-1 pg. 209.
898 B.C.E. Jehoash begins his rule [40-yrs.] High Priest: Jehoiada, see Jehoash #1, IT-1 pgs. 1265-6.
858 B.C.E. Amaziah begins his rule [29-yrs.] Jehoash of Israel captured Amaziah, breached the walls of Jerusalem, and took treasure from the temple, Book of Jonah written c. 844 B.C.E. See Amaziah #2 IT-1 pg. 88.
829 B.C.E. Uzziah begins his rule [52-yrs.] Prophets: Hosea, Joel (?), Isaiah / High Priest: Azariah (II) [Book of Joel perhaps written c. 820 B.C.E.; Book of Amos written c. 803 B.C.E.] See Uzziah #3 IT-2 pg. 1146.
777 B.C.E. Jotham begins his rule [16-yrs.] Prophets: Micah, Hosea, Isaiah, see Jotham #3 IT-2 pgs. 118-9.
762 B.C.E. Ahaz begins his rule [16-yrs.] Prophets: Micah, Hosea, Isaiah / High Priest: Urijah (?) [Ahaz evidently became tributary to Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria.] See Ahaz #2 IT-1 pgs. 61-2.
746 B.C.E. Hezekiah begins his rule [29-yrs.] Prophets: Micah, Hosea, Isaiah / High Priest: Azariah (II or III) [Book of Isaiah written c. 732 B.C.E.] See Hezekiah #1 IT-1 pgs. 1102-5.
716 B.C.E. Manasseh begins his rule [55-yrs.] Book of Proverbs completed c. 716 B.C.E.; Book of Micah written b. 716 B.C.E. See Manasseh #4 IT-2 pg. 307.
661 B.C.E. Amon begins his rule [2-yrs.] See Amon #2 IT-1 pg. 96.
659 B.C.E. Josiah begins his rule [31-yrs.] Prophets: Zephaniah, Jeremiah, the prophetess Hulda / High Priest: Hilkiah [Book of Zephaniah written b. 648 B.C.E.] See Josiah #1 IT-2 pgs. 117-8.
c. 633 B.C.E. Nineveh falls to Medes and Caldeans BABYLON now in line to become THIRD WORLD POWER. [Book of Nahum written b.632 B.C.E.] See IT-2 pgs. 503-5, also IT-1 pgs. 235-9, also bf pg. 295.
628 B.C.E. Jehoahaz begins his rule [3-mos.] See Jehoahaz #3 IT-1 pg. 1265.
628 B.C.E. Jehoikim begins his rule [tributary to Egypt for 11-yrs.] Prophets: Habakkuk (?), Jeremiah [Book of Habakkuk perhaps written c.628 B.C.E.] See IT-1 pgs. 1268-9.
618 B.C.E. Jehoiachin begins his rule [3-mos., 10-days] Nebuchadnezzar II took Jewish captives and temple treasures to Babylon. See IT-1 pg. 1267.
617 B.C.E. Zedekiah begins his rule [11-yrs.] Prophets: Jeremiah, Ezekiel / High Priest: Seraiah [Nebuchadnezzar II invaded Judah again, seige of Jerusalem began in 609 B.C.E., walls of Jerusalem were breached on the 9th day of the 4th month of 607 B.C.E., Jerusalem and its temple were burned on the 10th day of the 5th month of 607 B.C.E., lastly Jews abandoned Judah about the middle of the 7th month of 607 B.C.E.] See Zedekiah #4 IT-2 pgs. 1226-7.
607 B.C.E. Beginning of the "Gentile Times" or "The Appointed Times of the Nations" [to last 2,520 years, as prophesied in Ezekiel 21:25-27. Jerusalem destroyed by Babylon, land left desolate for 70-years] Book of Lamentations written 607B.C.E.; Book of Jeremiah written 580 B.C.E.; Books of 1st & 2nd Kings completed in one roll 580 B.C.E. ~ See IT-1 pgs.132-5, also yw pgs. 104-127 & 264-307.
997 B.C.E. Jeroboam begins his rule [22-yrs.] Prophet: Ahijah, See Jeroboam #1 IT-2 pgs. 37-8.
977 B.C.E. Nadab begins his rule [2-yrs.] See Nadab #4 IT-2 pg. 460.
976 B.C.E. Baasha begins his rule [24-yrs.] Baasha assassinated Nadab and then began to rule as king. See IT-1 pg. 234.
953 B.C.E. Elah begins his rule [2-yrs.] See Elah #3 IT-1 pg. 701.
951 B.C.E. Zimri begins his rule [7-days] Zimri, a military chief, assassinated Elah and then began to rule as king. See Zimri #3 IT-2 pg. 1235.
951 B.C.E. Omri begins his rule [12-yrs.] Omri, chief of the army, began to rule as king. Tibni became king over part of the people, further dividing the nation c. 951 B.C.E., Omri overcame Tibni's opposition and became sole ruler of Israel c. 947 B.C.E., Samaria became Omri's capitol. See Omri #3 IT-2 pg.554.
940 B.C.E. Ahab begins his rule [22-yrs.] Prophets: Elijah, Micaiah [Ahab marries wicked Baal worshipper Jezabel] See Ahab #1 IT-1 pgs. 59-60.
922 B.C.E. Ahaziah begins his rule [2-yrs.] Prophet: Elijah [Ahaziah, son of Ahab "became king" evidently his father was still living, Ahaziah's years may count from c. 919 B.C.E.] See Ahaziah #1 IT-1 pgs. 62-3.
921 B.C.E. Jehoram begins his rule [12-yrs.] Prophet: Elisha [Jehoram, son of Ahab began to rule as king of Israel; but in at least one text the brief reign of his brother Ahaziah who died sonless, also may have been credited to Jehoram.] See Jehoram #2 IT-1 pg. 1270.
909 B.C.E. Jehu begins his rule [28-yrs.] Prophet: Elisha [Jehu, a military chief, assassinated Jehoram and then began to rule as king, however it seems that his years of kingship counted from c. 904 B.C.E.] See Jehu #3 IT-2 pgs. 22-5.
881 B.C.E. Jehoahaz begins his rule [17-yrs.] Jehoash evidently became associated with his father, Jehoahaz in the kingship. See Jehoahaz #2 IT-1 pg. 1265.
867 B.C.E. Jehoash begins his rule[16-yrs.] Prophet: Elisha, see Jehoash #2 IT-1 pg. 1266.
852 B.C.E. Jeroboam II begins his rule [41-yrs.] Prophets: Jonah, Hosea, Amos [Book of Jonah written c. 844 B.C.E.] See Jeroboam #2 IT-2 pg. 38.
789 B.C.E. Zechariah begins his rule [6-mos.] Zechariah, "began to reign" in some sense, but evidently the kingship was not fully confirmed as his until c.792 B.C.E. See Zechariah #14 IT-2 pgs.1223-4.
788 B.C.E. Shallum begins his rule [1-mo.] Shallum assassinated Zechariah and then ruled as king. See Shallum #5 IT-2 pg. 906.
788 B.C.E. Menahem begins his rule [10-yrs.] Menahem assassinated Shallum, then began to rule, however, it seems that his years of kingship counted from c. 790 B.C.E. See IT-2 pg. 371.
777 B.C.E. Pekahiah begins his rule [2-yrs.] See IT-2 pg. 595.
775 B.C.E. Pekah begins his rule [20-yrs.] Pekah assassinated Pekahiah and then began to rule as king. See IT-2 pgs. 594-5.
748 B.C.E. Hoshea begins his rule [9-yrs.] Hoshea assassinated Pekah and then "began to reign" in place of him, however, it seems that his control became fully established or possibly he received the backing of the Assyrian monarch Tiglath-pileser III in c. 748 B.C.E. Book of Hosea written a. 745 B.C.E. See Hoshea #4 IT-1 pgs. 1148-9.
740 B.C.E. Ten-tribe kingdom of Israel destroyed by the Assyrian Empire. ASSYRIA attains prominence as the SECOND WORLD POWER. See IT-1 pgs. 200-5, also bf pg. 110.
c. 700 B.C.E. During the 8th century B.C.E. the Shinto religion sprang up in Japan. See sh pgs. 187-204
551 B.C.E. Confucian Era begins in China, Taoism in China begins in the 5th or 6th century B.C.E. See sh pgs. 161-86.
543 B.C.E. Buddhist Era begins in India. See sh pgs. 129-60.
539 B.C.E. Babylon captured by Cyrus of Persia. MEDO-PERSIA becomes the FOURTH WORLD POWER. See IT-2 pgs. 358-60, 611-17, also see yw pgs. 104-27, also bf pg. 187.
537 B.C.E. Jews repatriated to their homeland, return from exile in Babylon. Book of Daniel written c. 536 B.C.E.
530 B.C.E. Cyrus the Great dies his son Cambyses succeeds him.
490 B.C.E. In a campaign against Greece at Marathon, Darius I is defeated. Darius I dies in 486 B.C.E., his son Xerxes (Ahasuerrus, husband to Queen Esther) succeeds his father. See Ahasuerrus #3 IT-1 pg. 61.
480 B.C.E. Xerxes launched massive forces against the Greek mainland in retaliation for the defeat suffered at Marathon, following a costly victory at Thermopylae and the destruction of Athens, Xerxes' forces met defeat at Salamis and later at Plataea, causing Xerxes to return to Persia. Xerxes is assassinated by one of his courtiers. See Ahasuerrus #3 IT-1 pg. 61.
475 B.C.E. Artaxerxes Longimanus, Xerxes' successor, authorizes Ezra's return to Jerusalem with a large contribution for the support of the temple in 468 B.C.E.; Books of 1st & 2nd Chronicles completed in one roll c. 460 B.C.E.; Book of Ezra written c. 460 B.C.E.; Book of Psalms completed c. 460 B.C.E.; Book of Esther written 474 B.C.E. See Artaxerxes #2 IT-1 pg. 182.
455 B.C.E. Jerusalem's walls are rebuilt. Beginning 70-weeks of years as prophesied at Daniel 9:1-27. Book of Nehemiah written a. 443 B.C.E.; Book of Malachi written a. 443 B.C.E.
332 B.C.E. Alexander the Great defeats the Persian Empire. GREECE becomes the FIFTH WORLD POWER. Alexander's kingdom divided between his generals after his death in 323 B.C.E. One-eyed General Antigonus, after attempting to set himself up as lord of all Asia, and finally took the title of king after Alexander's death, claiming to be his heir. (Seleucus Nicator taking Mesopotamia & Syria; Cassander taking Macedonia & Greece; Ptolemy Lagus taking Egypt & Palestine; Lysimachus taking Thrace & Asia Minor.) Daniel chapter 8, Daniel chapter 11, Ezekiel chapter 26 & Jeremiah chapter 51 ~ See IT-1 pgs 70-1, also see yw pgs. 104-27, also bf pgs. 187, & 392.
a. 312 B.C.E. Ptolemy I captures Jerusalem on a sabbath day. He persuades the Jews to come south to Egypt as colonist, and a colony of Jews was established in Alexandria. With his son and successor he shared in founding the famous library and museum in Alexandria. The Jewish province of Judea stayed under control of Ptolemaic Egypt or the "KING OF THE SOUTH" until 198 B.C.E., when the "KING OF THE NORTH" took over. See yw pg. 230.
306 B.C.E. Ptolemy I the son of Lagus, (one of Alexander the Great's eight bodyguards), who was made the satrap of Egypt but assumed the title of king in 306 B.C.E. in imitation of one-eyed General Antigonus. Ptolemy I becomes the KING OF THE SOUTH in Daniel's prophecy, at Daniel 11:5, He was first of thirteen or fouteen Macedonian kings or Pharaohs of Egypt. According to his name, he established the Ptolemaic line of rulers over Egypt. See yw pg. 230.
301 B.C.E. One-eyed General Antigonus, is killed and is defeated in battle after meeting the confederacy of three other generals against him, Cassander, Selecus, and Lysimachus. He fell in battle against them at the Ipsus in Phyrgia, Asia Minor, in 301 B.C.E. The four Hellenistic empires that resulted were (1.) that of General Cassander in Macedonia and Greece; (2.) that of General Lysimachus in Asia Minor and European Thrace, including Byzantium; (3.) that of General Seleucus Nicator (the Conqueror), who secured Babylon, Media, Syria, Persia and the provinces east of the Indus River; and (4.) that of Ptolemy Lagus, who secured Egypt, Libya, Arabia and Palestine and Coele-Syria. In a few years the male line of General Cassander died out, and in 285 B.C.E. General Lysimachus took possession of the European part of the Macedonian Empire. See yw pg. 228.
285 B.C.E. General Lysimachus took possession of the European part of the Macedonian Empire. However, in 277 B.C.E. Antigonus Gonatas, the grandson of one-eyed General Antigonus, gained possession of the throne of Macedonia after General Lysimachus fell in battle, (281 B.C.E.) before General Seleucus Nicator, reducing the Hellenistic empires to three. See yw pg. 228.
281 B.C.E. General Lysimachus dies and is defeated in battle before General Seleucus Nicator and thus left Seleucus practically the master of all of the Asian territories. See yw pg. 228.
280 B.C.E. Seleucus Nicator is assassinated after transferring the capital from Babylon to Seleucia, a new city he had built, the Seleucid dynasty of kings that he left to succeed him continued in power until 64 B.C.E., Antiochus I, his son succeeds him to the throne. Antiochus I dies in battle fighting the Galatians in Asia Minor, he is succeeded by his son Antiochus II. (Daniel's prophecy of the KING OF THE NORTH & the KING OF THE SOUTH, Dan. chap. 11, has its first & minor fulfillment between Seleucus Nicator of Syria & Ptolemy Lagus of Egypt, for further information see yw pgs. 221-63, in the year 191 B.C.E. Rome formally declared war on Antiochus III, in 190 B.C.E., Antiochus III was decisively defeated by the Roman commander Lucius Scipio Asiaticus.) ** See Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews, Book 12 chapters 4&5, Polybius' Book 28 chapter 17, also see yw pgs. 220-63.
a. 280 B.C.E. A group of Hebrew scholars are gathered to Alexandria, Egypt to translate the Hebrew Bible into the popular Koine [or common] Greek language which came to be known as the Greek Septuagint [Latin for "seventy," referring to the approximate number of translators believed to be involved]. See w97 8/15 pgs. 8-11.
277 B.C.E. Antigonus Gonastas, the grandson of one-eyed General Antigonas, gained possession of the throne of Macedonia after General Lysimachus fell in battle before General Seleucus Nicator. See yw pg. 228.
250 B.C.E. King Ptolemy II, "KING OF THE SOUTH" waged two wars with the Syrian "KING OF THE NORTH," Antiochus II (Theos). The two kings entered into a peace arrangement. As the price of this alliance or "agreement" the Syrian KING OF THE NORTH must marry Bernice the daughter of Ptolemy II. Antiochus II was already married to Laodice. So this obliged him to divorce her in order to marry the Egyptian Bernice. By Bernice, Antiochus II of Syria had a son, who became heir to the throne of the "KING OF THE NORTH" to the exclusion of the sons of his first wife Laodice. (Daniel 11:5, 6) See yw pg. 231.
247-6 B.C.E. Ptolemy II dies, hence Bernice his daughter does not "retain the strength of her arm" (Daniel 11:6) with her husband King Antiochus II of Syria. He rejected her, and took back his first wife, Laodice, and named her first son, Seleucus Callinicus, to be his successor to the Syrian throne. Bernice and her infant son are murdered, along with her Egyptian attendants by plans of Laodice. Laodice also poisoned her husband Antiochus II who had taken her back. See yw pgs. 231-2.
242 B.C.E. Ptolemy III Bernice's brother now became KING OF THE SOUTH, he came into the stronghold of the KING OF THE NORTH and dealt out death to the queen mother Laodice for the death of his sister. (Daniel 11:7) Ptolemy III overran Syria, captured the fortified part of the capital city of Antioch and also its seaport, Seleucia. Internal troubles in Egypt forced Ptolemy III to return, after taking back spoils that had been robbed from Egypt by Persian King Cambyses, (Daniel 11:8). Taking advantage of this situation Seleucus II Callinicus, (the Gloriously Thriumphant) struck back in revenge only to meet with defeat. He retreated to his Syrian capital of Antioch. He died before his humiliator, Ptolemy III of Egypt. His son Seleucus III, surnamed Ceraunus ("Thunderbolt") suceeded him only to be assassinated after reigning less than three years. His brother Antiochus III succeeds him and became called "the Great." See yw pgs. 233-4.
209 B.C.E. Antiochus III defeats the Parthians. The following year 208 B.C.E. He carries his conquest even further eastward, against the Bactrians deep in Asia. See yw pg. 236.
198 B.C.E. Antiochus III proved victorious. He drove Egypt's General Scopas and his 100,000 picked troops or "chosen people" back into the Phoenician seaport of Sidon, a "well-fortified city." Here he "cast up a mound" or seigeworks. He took Sidon in 198 B.C.E., for the bottled-up General Scopas was forced to surrender because of famine. Antiochus III pressed forward "according to his own will," as the forces of the KING OF THE SOUTH were unable to stand before him. He captured more cities and proceeded against the capital of the "beautious land," Jerusalem, with its rebuilt santuary. (Daniel 11:15, 16) Jerusalem and Judea passed from under the domination of the KING OF THE SOUTH to the KING OF THE NORTH. See yw pg. 239.
196 B.C.E. Antiochus III aimed to have Syria dominate Egypt. Ptolemy V Epiphanes, king of Egypt, was only five years old, when Antiochus III and Philip V of Macedonia leagued against the boy king to take over his territories and split them between themselves, the guardians of Ptolemy V made a tragic mistake. They turned to Rome and placed him under the protection of that aggressive power. Under compulsion of Rome, Antiochus III brought terms of peace to the KING OF THE SOUTH. For a selfish reason he decided to make the boy king his son-in-law. Instead of making an outright surrender of his conqquered territories in obedience to Rome, he would make a nominal transfer of territory to King Ptolemy V by means of the "daughter of women," (Daniel 11:17), Cleopatra, the "daughter of his wife." In consideration of this political marriage she was to receive as dowry from her father the conquered provinces of Coele-Syria, Palestine and Phoenicia. See yw pgs. 240-1.
193 B.C.E. Ptolemy V is declared of legal age and is crowned KING OF THE SOUTH at the age of eight. His marriage to Cleopatra is performed. Antiochus III did not actually let the dowry of conquered territories pass over to his southern son-in-law by way of his daughter Cleopatra, she became Queen Cleopatra I of Egypt, (seven successive queens of Egypt also carried the name Cleopatra), the intent of this political marriage was to "destroy it," or to bring Egypt to ruin, making it subject to Syria. But this scheme did not stand, and the advantage did not remain with Syrian King Antiochus III. In the difficulties that followed, Cleopatra took the side of her young husband rather than that of her Syrian father. In this way she frustrated the selfish designs of her father Antochus III. When at last war broke out between her father and Rome, Egypt took the side of her protector, Rome. See yw pg. 241.
192 B.C.E. Antiochus III met with reversals, it happened that war broke out in Greece in 192 B.C.E. and King Antiochus III was induced to come to Greece, he landed there that year. He captured Chalcis, gained a foothold in Boeotia and tried to take over Thessaly but retreated before the Macedonian army. See yw pg. 242.
191 B.C.E. Rome declares war on Antiochus III, who was then at Acarnania. He returned to Chalcis. At Thermopylae he met the Romans and suffered defeat. He sailed back to Asia Minor to his capital at Ephesus, The Romans purposed to oust the KING OF THE NORTH from Asia, battles at sea were fought. Antiochus III was defeated, he abandoned Lysimachia on the Chersonese peninsula. By giving up Lysimachia he left the way for the Romans to cross the Hellespont into Asia Minor. See yw pg. 242.
190 B.C.E. A decisive battle took place at Magnesia, near Ephesus, and Antiochus III with 80,000 men lost to the Roman "commander," Lucius Scipio Asiaticus. The KING OF THE NORTH was now willing to make peace with Rome. See yw pg. 242.
189 B.C.E. Final peace arrangements were made, Antiochus III was required to disown everything in Asia Minor, everything west of the Taurus Mountains, as well as everything in Greece. He must pay 15,000 talents to Rome and 500 talents to her ally, Eumenes, king of Pergamum, who had helped defeat Antiochus III at Magnesia. As a further reward King Eumenes received European territory and all the possessions of Antiochus III in Asia Minor as far as the Taurus Mountains. Rome thus established a dominion over the Syrian KING OF THE NORTH. One of his sons, who became Antiochus IV, lived as a boy at Rome, as a hostage. See yw pgs. 242-3.
187 B.C.E. After being driven from Greece and losing Asia Minor and practically all of his fleet, Antiochus III turned his face back towards the strongholds of his own land. The Romans had turned back his reproach against themselves upon his own self. He was pressed to pay the large fine to Rome. In 187 B.C.E., while trying to rob the temple at Belus at Elymais in Persia, he was killed. He staggered and fell in death. He left two sons, Seleucus and Antiochus, to succeed him. See yw pg. 243.
175 B.C.E. Antiochus IV of Syria, (KING OF THE NORTH of Daniel chapter 11), rules over the Jews, Antiochus is not tolerant of the worship given to Jehovah. Hoping to unify all peoples under his domain created one religion for all, with himself as "god manifest." ** See yw pgs. 220-263.
168 B.C.E. Antiochus IV, (KING OF THE NORTH of Daniel chapter 11), erects an altar to the Greek god Zeus on top of Jehovah's altar in the temple courtyard. Judas Maccabeus attacks Ashdod, later in 148 B.C.E. Ashdod came under attack by Judas Maccabeus' brother Johnathan, during this second attack the temple of Dagon was burned down. Macedonia becomes dependent upon Rome in 168 B.C.E. and in 146 B.C.E. becomes a Roman province further reducing the Hellenistic empires to two, that of the KING OF THE NORTH and the KING OF THE SOUTH . See yw pgs. 220-263.
167 B.C.E. Judas Maccabeus, a Levite priest, became leader of a resistance movement against the Syrian rule of Antiochus IV.
166 B.C.E. Judas Maccabeus recaptures Jerusalem from Syrian rule.
165 B.C.E. Temple rededicated to Jehovah. Jewish celebration of Hanukkah begins in commemoration of this event. Beginning a period of rule of Maccabean kings, in the order in which they ruled as follows: Simon Maccabeus, John Hyrcanus I, Aristobulus I, Alexander Jannaeus and his widow Salome Alexandra, Aristobulus II, John Hyrcanus II, and the last Hasmonean king, Antigonus, who was deposed and executed by the Romans under Mark Antony. Jewish political parties were formed such as the pro-Hasmonean Sadducees and the anti-Hasmonean Pharisees, these ruled until 63 B.C.E., when Rome sent General Pompey to interfere with political party scwabbling. Rome begins to come into the role of the KING OF THE NORTH, but not until 64 B.C.E. when Rome annexes Syria does this transition completely take place. See Daniel's prophecy at Daniel 11:20-22. See yw pgs. 247, 249, & 251.
163 B.C.E. Antiochus IV won his war with Egypt. He had himself crowned as king of Egypt. Then the Roman fleet brought its ambassador Caius Popilius Laenas with orders from the Roman Senate that Antiochus IV renounce his kingship of Egypt and quit the country. The Syrian king did so, but kept his hold on Coele-Syria, Palestine and Phoenicia. In 163 B.C.E. he died as a temple looter in Persia. After him there were many more independent kings of the Seleucid dynasty in Syria. See yw pgs. 247-8.
161 B.C.E. The Maccabees made a treaty with Rome, the first of theirs on record. See yw pg. 246.
a. 150 B.C.E. Greek Septuagint version of the Hebrew Bible is completed. See w97 pgs. 8-11.
139 B.C.E. Jews expelled from Rome for proselytizing. The government of Rome according to tradition was founded in the year 753 B.C.E., in 710 B.C.E., King Numa Pompillius set himself up in the office of Pontifex Maximus at Rome, the very office occupied by the head of the Catholic Church, he was a pagan Etruscan magic-practicing priest. See sh pgs. 262, 271 & 268-72.
104 B.C.E. The Maccabees establish a kingdom, when Aristobulus I assumed the title of king. See yw pg. 246.
65 B.C.E. Antiochus XIII the last king of the Seleucid dynasty of kings is dethroned by Roman General Gnaeus Pompey the Great. See yw pg. 248.
64 B.C.E. Roman General Gnaeus Pompey annexes Syria as a Roman province, therefore Rome becomes the KING OF THE NORTH of Daniel's prophecy at Daniel 11:20-22. See yw pg. 229.
63 B.C.E. Roman General Gnaeus Pompey lays a three month seige to Jerusalem and captures it, the Egyptian KING OF THE SOUTH was powerless to prevent it. Rome annexes Judea to the Roman Empire. ROME becomes the SIXTH WORLD POWER. Herod the Great is appointed king of the Jews in 40 or 39 B.C.E., and in 37 B.C.E. Herod effectively crushes the Hasmonean [Sadducees] rule. See IT-2 pgs. 822-5, also see yw pgs. 104-27 & pgs. 220-63.
45 B.C.E. Julius Gaius Caesar is elected Pontifex Maximus, as such he is not only the head of the Roman state, he is the head of the Roman religion, all of the powers and funtions of the true Babylonian Pontiff were supremely vested in him, and he found himself in a position to exert these powers. ...Then, on certain occasions, in the exercise of his high pontifical office, he appeared of course in all the pomp of the Babylonian costume, as Belshazzar himself might have done, in robes of scarlet, with the crozier of Nimrod in his hand, wearing the mitre of Dagon [the fish god] and bearing the keys of Janus [the two-faced god] and Cybele [the "mother" goddess]. Notice the similarities in false religion today. See the book "The Two Babylons" by Doctor Alexander Hyslop pgs. 241, 242, 247, 250, 252, & 255 Also see bf pg. 339.
39 B.C.E. Herod the Great succeeds his father Antipater II to the throne, appointed king by Rome the SIXTH WORLD POWER. See bf pg. 335.
37 B.C.E. Herod the Great captures Jerusalem and establishes himself as king, to end Maccabean rule. See yw pg. 246.
30 B.C.E. Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt the KING OF THE SOUTH commits suicide, Egypt becomes a Roman province, subject to the KING OF THE NORTH. See yw pg. 248.
27 B.C.E. In the battle for power Octavius finally came forth as the sole ruler of Rome and became the first Roman emperor. He turned down the titles of rex ("king") and dictator. Finally, in 27 B.C.E. by decree of the Roman Senate, he was styled Augustus. The Greeks translated this title as Sebastos, which means "Reverend One." See yw pg. 248.
2 B.C.E. John the Baptizer born [about April], Jesus born [about October 1st.]
13 C.E. Caesar Augustus sets up the emperor's bodyguard known as the Praetorian Guards which are later enlarged by his successor. These Guards had been seen only near Rome in small detachments, later Tiberius changed this, he had the Guards encamp permanently in full force close to the city walls of Rome. By this arrangement he held in check any unruliness of the people. This attached great importance to the commander of the Guards. The Guards came to to enjoy special privileges and in time became so powerful that they were able to put emperors in office or to dethrone them, according to their will. See yw pg. 250 & 254.
14 C.E. (August 19th) Caesar Augustus, (Octavius) dies leaving as successor his stepson Tiberius. Caesar Augustus did not want Tiberius to be his successor, he hated his stepson because of his bad qualities. Augustus was forced to accept Tiberius as his successor only after every other hope had failed. Emperor Augustus had no sons, his sister had a son Marcellus, but he died. His daughter had two sons, Gaius and Lucius, and these Augustus appointed as his successors. These also died, he loved his dear stepson Drusus, the younger brother of Tiberius but again Drusus died on September 14, 9 C.E. This left only Tiberius, who was a capable general of the top-ranking soldier of the Roman Empire. In the year 12 C.E. Agrippa the great general of the Emperor Augustus died at the age of fifty-one years, then Livia, the mother of Tiberius, induced the emperor wih great difficulty, to replace Agrippa with her son Tiberius. To replace Agrippa, though required Tiberius to become the son-in-law of the emperor. So to his great grief, Tiberius was compelled to exchange Agripina, the daughter of Agrippa, for the emperor's daughter Julia. In 4 C.E. Emperor Augustus adopted Tiberius and Agrippa Postumus. Nine years later, by special law, Tiberius was raised to the coregency with emperor Augustus. When Augustus died the following year, Tiberius was made emperor. No wonder that Jesus referred to Tiberius as "that fox." See yw pgs. 250-2.
29-33 C.E. Jesus Christ earthly ministry. The end of 69-weeks of years, when Jesus presents himself to John to be baptised at the Jordan River, and is annointed with holy spirit as the "Christ" or "Messiah," in 29 C.E. in fulfillment of Daniel's prophecy at Daniel 9:1-27. For Jesus' life story and the Bible prophesies that he fulfilled, see the book "The Greatest Man Who Ever Lived," published by the Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society of Jehovah's Witnesses (1991). Also see IT-2 pgs. 54-72.
33 C.E. Nisan 14, Jesus impaled on torture stake. Holy spirit is poured out upon 120-Christian disciples on the day of Pentecost 33 C.E., in fulfillment of the prophecy at Joel 2:28, 29.
36 C.E. Roman centurion Cornilus, and members of his household are baptized. End of the 70-weeks of years as prophesied at Daniel 9:1-27. See IT-1 pgs. 439-442 & 496-500 & pg. 513.
37 C.E. Tiberius Caesar dies in the latter half of March, 37 C.E. The historian Tacitus refers to him as "one of studied dissimulation and hypocrisy from the beginning." He is remembered as a "contemptible person." Tiberius is succeeded by Gaius Caesar also known as Caligula. See yw pg. 256.
41 C.E. Caligula, or Gaius is succeeded by his uncle, Claudius in the year 41 C.E. Claudius saw to the further development of the empire along the lines that Augustus had in mind. Says one authority: "Client-states were absorbed, southern Britian was conquered, the Romanization of the West received powerful impulse, public works were executed in Rome and Italy, and the organization of the imperial bureaucracy made rapid strides." (See The Encyclopedia Britanica, Volume 23, pg. 651b.) Says a history: "An important extension of the state was made under Claudius, who sent a sucessful expedition into Britian in 43 C.E. and added to the southern portion of the island as the province of Britania. Later the British frontier was pushed farther northward and secured by a line of defenses. See "On the Road to Civilization," by Heckel and Sigman (1937), pg. 198, par. 1., also see yw pg. 256.
66 C.E. Roman General Cestius Gallus surrounds Jerusalem with soldiers and even undermines the temple wall, then for some reason suddenly departs. This allows faithful Christians to flee to the mountains, fulfillment of prophecy by Jesus Christ at Luke 21:20.
70 C.E. Roman General Titus returns to Jerusalem and lays seige with pointed stakes, 1,100,000 Jews perish, 97,000 are taken captive, this is in fulfillment of the prophecy given by Jesus Christ at Luke 19:44.
98-117 C.E. Emperor Trajan, ambitious to build a great oriental empire, entered upon a war of aggression in which he defeated the Parthians in Persia and added Armenia, Mesopotamia and Assyria to the empire as provinces. This represents the expansion of Rome to its greatest extent, but these conquest by Trajan in the east were abandoned by his successor. See "On the Road to Civilization," by Heckel and Sigman (1937), pg.198, par. 1. also see yw pg. 256.
c. 100 C.E. APOSTASY firmly established at the death of the last apostle (John). "Man of Lawlessness" is revealed in fulfillment of 2-Thess. 2:3 & 2:7 . Christian Greek Scriptures completed c. 98 C.E. with the writing of the Gospel John. See sh pgs. 260, 263-5 & 278, also see jv pgs. 33-41, also see bf pgs. 472, 474, 479 & 480.
c. 125 C.E. Rylands Papyrus 457 (P52), are fragments of the Gospel John. See w97 8/15 pgs. 8-11, also see si pgs. 305-14.
150-170 C.E. Tatian, a student of the early Christian, Justin Martyr, produces the "Diatessaron," a composite account of Jesus' life, compiled from the same four Gospels found in our present-day Bibles. See w97 8/15 pgs. 8-11.
a. 170 C.E. The earliest known catalog of the "New Testament" books, called the "Muratorian Fragment," was produced, it list most of the Christian Greek Scriptures. See w97 8/15 pgs. 8-11.
269 C.E. Zenobia of Palmyra, (Syria) seizes opportunity to expand her power and throne when a pretender disputing Roman rulership appeared in Egypt, Zenobia's army marched into Egypt, crushed the rebel and took possession of the country. Proclaiming herself queen of Egypt. Her kingdom now stretched from the river Nile to the river Euphrates. At this point she came to occupy the position of the "KING OF THE SOUTH" spoken about in the book of Daniel, (Daniel 11:25, 26). She also conquered most of Asia Minor. See w99 1/15 pgs. 28-31.
271 C.E. Roman Emperor Aurelian, (270-275) now representing the "KING OF THE NORTH" of Daniel's prophecy, Aurelian "aroused his power and his heart against the king of the south," represented by Zenobia. (Daniel 11:25a) Aurelian dispached some of his forces directly to Egypt and led his main army eastward through Asia Minor. The "KING OF THE SOUTH" or the ruling entity headed by Zenobia--"excited himself" for warfare against Aurilian "with an exceedingly great and mighty military force" under two generals, Zabdas and Zabbai. (Daniel 11:25b) Aurelian conquered Egypt, then launched an expedition into Asia Minor and Syria. Zenobia was defeated at Emesa (now Homs), she retreated to Palmyra. See w99 1/15 pgs. 28-31.
272-4 C.E. Palmyrenes surrender their city. Aurelian, though he dealt magnanimously with the inhabitants, collected an immense quantity of plunder, including the idol from the Temple of the Sun, and departed for Rome. The Roman emperor spared Zenobia, making her the prize feature of his triumphal procession through Rome in 274 C.E. See w99 1/15 pgs. 28-31.
303 C.E. Emperor Diocletian decrees that Christian meeting places be razed and their "Scriptures be consumed with fire." See w97 10/1 pg. 11.
325 C.E. Christendom's early beginnings, Emperor Constantine, (324-337), Pontifex Maximus, calls for a council of "his bishops" at Nicaea, Asia Minor out of which the pagan trinity doctrine was adopted as "Christian Theology" this was the early beginnings of the Catholic Church. See sh pgs. 262, 271, 268-72 & 309-13.
330 C.E. May 11th Emperor Constantine moved his imperial residence from Rome to Byzantium, he founded the new imperial capital and dedicated it as New Rome or Constantinople. But there was still one Roman Empire. See yw pg. 260.
366 C.E. Pope Damasus I succeeded Liberius as bishop of Rome, he was opposed by Ursicinus, who claimed the election, and in their disgraceful stifes many people were murdered ... The man [Pope Damasus I] that came into the bishopric of Rome, as a thief and a robber, over dead bodies of above a hundred of his opponents, could not hesitate as to the election he should make. The results shows that he acted in character, that, in assuming the Pagan title of Pontifex, he had set himself at whatever sacrifice of truth to justify his claims to that title in the eyes of the Pagans, as the legitimate representative of their long line of pontiffs.. See "Damasus I, pope," pg. 252b of Vol. 2 M'Clintock and Strong's Cyclopedia. Also see the book "The Two Babylons" by Doctor Alexander Hyslop pgs. 241, 242, 247, 250, 252, & 255. Also see bf pg. 340.
378 C.E. Emperor Gratian conferred upon [Damasus], the right to pass judgment upon those clergymen of the other party who had been expelled from Rome, and at the request of a Roman synod held the same year, instructed the secular authorities to give him the necessary support. ... The Pope, as he is now, was at the close of the fourth century, the only representative of Belshazzar, or Nimrod, on the earth, for the Pagans manifestly accepted him as such. See "Damasus I, pope," pg. 252b of Vol. 2 M'Clintock and Strong's Cyclopedia. Also see the book "The Two Babylons by Doctor Alexander Hyslop pgs. 241, 242, 247, 250, 252, & 255. Also see bf pg. 340.
382-405 C.E. Pope Damasus commisions his secretary, Jerome, to prepare an authoritative Latin Bible. Jerome completed his work a. 405 C.E., Jerome's work became known as the Vulgate, or common version, rather than using the Greek Septuagint version which proved to have many errors, (despite many criticisms from the church, because of fears that not using the Greek Septuagint as the basis for translation would further divide the western church from the Greek eastern church), however, Jerome translated from the inspired Hebrew manuscripts available to him at that time, and it benefited people for centuries. See w97 8/15 pgs. 8-11, also see w99 1/1 pgs. 26-29.
395 C.E. January 17th at the death of Roman emperor Theodosius, the Roman Empire was divided between his sons, Honorius receiving the western section and Arcadius the eastern, with its capital at Constantinople.Egypt fell to the lot of Constantinople and became a province of the eastern division of the Roman Empire. See yw pg. 260.
a. 550 C.E. A group of Jews known as the Masoretes developed a systematic copying method for preserving the Hebrew Scripture text. This involved counting the lines and even the individual letters, noting variations among manuscripts, all in an effort to preserve the authentic text. A comparison of modern Masoretic text with the Dead Sea Scrolls, written between 250 B.C.E. & 50 B.C.E., shows no doctrinal changes in over 1,000 years. This Masoretic Text preparation continued to a. 950 C.E. See w97 8/15 pgs. 8-11, also see si pgs. 310-14.
622 C.E. Mohammed flees from his enemies to Medina. (Islam Era begins) See sh pgs. 284-303
800 C.E. Pope Leo III crowns Frankish king Charlemagne as emperor of the "Holy Roman Empire." For a thousand years, this empire represented the union between Church & State, during this time the clergy enjoyed varying degrees of power over secular authorities. See bf pg. 484.
863 C.E. Two Greek-speaking brothers, Cyril and Methodius, went to Moravia, (now part of the Czeck Republic), they began to translate the Bible into Old Slavonic. To do so, they devised the Glugolitic alphabet, which was later superseded by the Cyrillic alphabet, (named after Cyril). This was the source of present-day Russian, Ukrainian, Serbian, and Bulgarian scripts. The Slavic Bible served people of that area for generations. See w97 8/15 pgs. 8-11.
962 C.E. February 2, Pope John XII crowns Otto the Great, (Otho I), emperor of the "Holy Roman Empire," it came to be known as the "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" the capital was in Germany, the emperors and the majority of the subjects were Germans. So under Otho I Germany and Italy were brought into a close relationship, but with Germany on top, for Italy was treated finally as a conquered province, at this point the KING OF THE NORTH in Daniel's prophecy effectively changes from Rome to Germany.** See yw pgs. 220-63.
1054 C.E. Eastern Orthodox church breaks in a major schism. Final break between the Greek & Latin churches, when the pope's legates excommunicate Patriarch Michael Cerularius of Constantinople. When this break occurred, this formed the Eastern Orthodox Church from which sprang the Russian Orthodox Church, the Greek Orthodox Church, the Romanian Orthodox Church & others. See sh pg. 280.
1079 C.E. Pope Gregory VII issued the first of many medieval church edicts banning the production and sometimes even the possession of vernacular versions of the Bible. He revoked permission for mass to be celebrated in the Slavonic language on the grounds that it would require portions of the Holy Scripture to be translated, he wrote: "It [has] pleased Almighty God that holy scripture should be secret in certain places." With this as the official position of the church, promoters of Bible reading were increasingly considered dangerous. See w97 8/15 pgs. 8-11.
1096-9 C.E. First Crusade, resulted in the recapture of Jerusalem and the establisment of four Latin states in the east: the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, and the County of Tripoli. An authority quoted by H.G. Wells says of the capture of Jerusalem: "The slaughter was terrible; the blood of the conquered ran down the streets, until men splashed in the blood as they rode. At nightfall, 'sobbing for excess of joy,' the crusaders came to the Sepulchre from their treading of the winepress, and put their blood-stained hands together in prayer." For more information about the crusades see sh pgs. 281-2, w987 7/15 pg. 28, w90 2/1 pgs. 17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4.
1147-9 C.E. Second Crusade, was initiated because of the loss of the County of Edessa to Syrian Muslims in 1144 C.E.; it ended when the Muslims successfully turned back Christendom's "infidels." See w90 2/1 pgs.17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4.
1189-92 C.E. Third Crusade, was undertaken after the Muslims retook Jerusalem, (had as one of its leaders Richard I, "the Lionhearted," of England), this crusade soon "disintegrated," says the Enclyclopedia of Religion, "through attrition, quarreling and lack of cooperation." See w90 2/1 pgs. 17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4.
1202-4 C.E. Fourth Crusade, was diverted for lack of funds from Egypt to Constantinople; material assisstance was promised in return for helping enthrone Alexius, an exiled Byzantine pretender to the crown. "The [resulting] pillage of Constantinople by the crusaders is something that the Orthodox East has never forgotten or forgiven," says the Encylopedia of Religion, adding: "If any single date is to be cited for the firm establishment of the schism, the most appropriate at least from a psychological standpoint is the year 1204 C.E." See w90 2/1 pgs. 17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4.
1212 C.E. Children's Crusade, brought death to thousands of German & French children before they even reached their destination. See w90 2/1 pgs. 17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4.
1217-21 C.E. Fifth Crusade, the last under papal control, failed because of flawed leadership & clergy interference. See w90 2/1 pgs.17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4.
1228-9 C.E. Sixth Crusade, was led by Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, whom Pope Gregory IX had previously excommunicated. See w90 2/1 pgs. 17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4.
1229 C.E. During the 12th century Pierre Valdes (Peter Waldo), of Lyons, France engaged some scholars to translate the Bible into a regional language of the south of France, he studied the translation zealously, and concluded that Christians should live like the apostles without individual property. He started a preaching movement that became known as the Waldenses, these rejected the Catholic priesthood, indulgences, purgatory, transubstantiation, and other traditional Catholic practices & beliefs. In 1229 C.E. the Council of Toulouse tried to check them by banning the possession of Scriptural books. See sh pgs. 280-2, w87 7/15 28-9, g89 8/22 pg. 17.
1248-54 C.E. Seventh Crusade, led by Louis IX of France. See w 90 2/1 pgs. 17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4.
1252 C.E. Infamous Catholic Inquisition begins, Pope Innocent IV issued the Papal bull "Ad extirpanda" which allowed torture of suspected "heretics" (being burned at the stake, the usual method employed to put heretics to death by the 13th century, ...had its symbolism, implying that by administering this kind of punishment, the church was not guilty of shedding blood.) The Catholic Inquisition went on for more than 600 years, in the pope's name [the inquisitors] were responsible for for the most savage and sustained onslaught on human decency in the history of mankind. Of Dominican inquisitor Tomas de Torquemada in Spain, Peter De Rosa, in his book, "Vicars of Christ--The Dark Side of the Papacy" states: "Appointed in 1483, he ruled tyrannically for fifteen years. His victims numbered over 114,000 of whom 10,220 were burned at the stake." See sh pgs. 282-3, w90 2/1 pgs. 18-9, g89 8/8 pgs. 24-5, g86 4/22 pgs. 20-4.
1270-2 C.E. Eighth Crusade, led by Louis IX of France, but collapsed following his death in North Africa. This was the final crusade. See w90 2/1 pgs. 17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4.
SEEDS OF RELIGIOUS REFORM. John Wycliffe (1330?-84) a Catholic priest, translated the Latin Vulgate Bible into English. Wycliffe's writings and portions of the Bible were distribued throughout England by a body of preahers. See sh pgs. 310-2, also w97 9/15 pgs. 25-9.
1382 C.E. Anne of Bohemia, possessed Wycliffe's translation, she married Richard II of England in 1382 C.E., she studied the Scripture constantly. When she became Queen, her favorable attitude helped to advance the cause of the Bible, not only in England, she encouraged students from Prague University in Bohemia to come to Oxford. There they studied the works of Wycliffe enthusiastically and some took them back to Prague. See w97 9/15 pgs. 25-9.
1403 C.E. Jan Hus (1369?-1415), a Bohemian Catholic priest preaches against corruption of the Roman Catholic Church and stressed the importance of reading the Bible. In 1403 church authorities ordered him to stop preaching the anti-papal ideas of Wycliffe, whose books they also publicly burned. Hus wrote some of the most stinging indictments against the practices of the church, including the sale of indulgences. Hus was condemned and excommunicated in 1410 C.E., and in 1415 C.E. he was tried for heresy and burned at the stake. See sh pgs. 311-2, also w97 9/15 pgs. 25-9.
1450 C.E. Johannes Gutenberg began printing with movable type in Germany. His first great work was an edition of the Latin Vulgate Bible, completed a. 1455 C.E. By 1495 C.E. all or part of the Bible had been printed in German, Italian, French, Czech, Dutch, Hebrew, Catalan, Greek, Spanish, Slavonic, Portuguese, and Serbian--in that order. See w97 9/15 pgs. 25-9.
1453 C.E. Constantinople is captured by Mohamet (Mohammed II), Greek Patriarch of Constantinople is allowed to continue in office.
1497 C.E. Girolamo Savonarola (1452-98), a Dominican monk spoke out against corruption of both the Church and State, in 1497 C.E. the pope excommunicated him and the following year, he was arrested, tortured, and hanged. See sh pgs. 312-3.
1516 C.E. Dutch scholar Desiderius Erasmus produced the first complete printed edition of the Greek text. Erasmus wished that the Scripture "were translated into all languages of all people." However, he hesitated to risk his great popularity by translating it himself. See w97 9/15 pgs. 25-9.
1517 C.E. Reformations beginning, on October 31, Martin Luther (1483-1546) nails his 95-theses to the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany adding more branches to the false religious tree of Christendom. From which sprang the Lutheran Church i.e. the German, Swedish, American, and others. Though Luther spoke of reform, today's modern church is not much different from its predecessor. See sh pgs. 21, 314-9.
c. 1519 C.E. Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531), in Switzerland, began to preach against indulgences, Mariolatry, clerical celibacy, and other doctrines of the Catholic Church. Zwingli advocated the removal of all vestiges of the Roman Church, including images, crucifexes, clerical garb [sacerdotal vestments], even liturgical music. See sh pgs. 319-20.
16th Century Reformation: Anglican Episcopal from which sprang the Methodist Church, [from which sprang the Salvation Army], the Baptist Church [from which sprang the Pentecostal Church, and the Congregational Church]. See sh pgs. 320-1, & 326-7.
1526 C.E. William Tyndale produces 3,000 copies of his English New Testament, in Worms, Germany, these are sent to England and began to be distributed there. Some of these were the Bibles that Bishop Tunstall bought and burned, unknowingly he finantially aided Tynsdale to continue his work. In 1536 C.E. Tyndale was betrayed in Antwerp, Belgium, and strangled at the stake, then his body was burned. See sh pg. 325, also see w97 9/15 pgs. 25-9.
1529 C.E. Protestant movement is established by Luther's supporters, and the following year the Protestant League of Schmalkald is entered into.
1531 C.E. King Henry VIII of England imposes royal supremacy on the English clergy.
1534 C.E. English Parliment passes acts declaring Henry VIII to be the supreme head of the Church of England, (Episcopal Church), with authority to redress errors, heresies, and abuses in the church. (The Puritans demanded more thourough reform to purify the church of Roman Catholic practices, many dissidents fled to the Netherlands or to North America, where they further developed their Congregational and Baptist Churches.) There also sprang up in England the Society of Friends (Quakers), under the leadership of George Fox (1624-91), and under John Wesley (1703-91), the Methodist Church was founded in 1738. See sh pgs. 313, 325-7.
1534 C.E. John Calvin leaves Paris, France because of religious persecution settles in Basel, Switzerland, in defense of protestants he publishes "Institutes of Christian Religion" [French Calvinist Protestants were called Huguenots, from Calvinism sprang the Presbyterian Church, and the Reformed Churches.] See sh pgs. 321-5.
1535 C.E. Miles Coverdale completes William Tyndale's work of translation, the entire English Bible appeared in 1535 C.E. See sh pg. 325.
1538 C.E. King Henry VIII of England, for his own reasons ordered that Bibles be placed in every church in England. Though Tyndale is not credited, the translation that was chosen was essentially his. See w97 9/15 pgs. 25-9.
a. 1544 C.E. Francisco de Enzinas is imprisoned by the Catholic Inquisition for translating and publishing the Christian Greek Scriptures in Spanish. See w97 10/1 pg. 13.
1559 C.E. Pope Paul IV rules that no Bible could be printed in the vernacular without church approval, and this the church refused to grant. [In 1564 C.E. Pope Pius IV stated: "Experience has shown that if reading the Bible in the vulgar tongue is permitted indiscriminately, ...more harm than good arises therefrom."]
1587 C.E. Independent Russian Orthodox Church is established, with the Patriarch of Moscow as head.
1763 C.E. GREAT BRITAIN emerges as the SEVENTH WORLD POWER. See yw pgs. PGS. 104-27, also bf pg. 592.
1775 C.E. American colonies of Britian, revolt, leading to the establishment of the United States of America. [Future ally of Britian the SEVENTH WORLD POWER] See yw pgs. 104-27.
1793 C.E. England as a world power [being a seafaring and colonial power], certain Englishmen took the Bible with them on their journeys. This laid the groundwork for an extended Bible campaign. Missionary William Carey sailed to India, he eventually translated the entire Bible or parts of it into 35 Indian languages. See w97 10/15 pgs. 8-12.
1800 C.E. Mary Jones a 16-year old Welsh girl walked barefoot for 25-miles to buy a Welsh Bible from a clergyman. She had saved her money for six years, when Mary learned that all the Bibles had been sold, she sobbed. Deeply moved the clergyman gave Mary one of his own Bibles. This clergyman reflected on the many others who needed Bibles, he discussed this problem with some friends in London, the result was the formation, in 1804 C.E. of the British and Foreign Bible Society. Its premise: to provide people with affordable Bibles in their own language, printed "without note or comment." See w97 10/15 pgs. 8-12.
19th Century. Early in the century, Pavsky, a professor at the St. Pertersburg Academy for Divinity, translated the Gospel of Matthew from Greek into Russian. Other books of the Christian Greek Scriptures were also translated into Russian and Pavsky served as editor. Later, Pavsky translated the Hebrew Scriptures from Hebrew into Russian. About the same time Makarios, an archimandrite of the Orthodox Church, also translated the Hebrew Scriptures into Russian. Both Pavsky and Makarios were punished for their efforts and their works were put into the church archives. See w97 10/1 pg. 12.
1806 C.E. Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of France, refuses to recognize the "Holy Roman Empire" as existing effectively bringing it to its end. [Emperor Francis II released the Germanic states from their allegiance to the "Holy Roman Empire." He resigned from the Roman Imperial Dignity and withdrew to his national government as emperor of Austria.]
1807-18 C.E. At the risk of his own life, Robert Morrison translated the Bible into Chinese. See w97 10/1 pg. 13.
1813 C.E. From the time of the British and Foreign Bible Society's formation in 1804 C.E., by 1813 C.E., associate Bible societies had been formed in Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark, and Russia. In time, Bible societies in other countries were added. However, relatively few translators knew Hebrew or Greek and there were literally thousands of languages, therefore, when the British and Foreign Bible Society sponsored translations, the translators very often based their work on the English-language King James Version. See w97 10/15 pgs. 8-12.
1823 C.E. Joseph Smith a 17-year old, told his family that an angel named Moroni had appeared to him and had shown him a set of golden plates. Four years later he claimed that he was given the plates and the exclusive divine power to translate them, in 1830 C.E. "The Book of Mormon" was published from Smith's manuscripts, financed by a prosperous believer, thus was the formation of the Mormon religion or also known as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. See g95 11/8 pgs. 17-25.
1826 C.E. The Russian czar was induced to have the Russian Bible Society placed under the management of the "Holy Synod" of the Russian Orthodox Church, which then effectively suppressed its operations. See w97 10/1 pg. 12.
1833 C.E. Regency of Greece declares Orthodox Church of Greece to be independent.
1856 C.E. The "Holy Synod" of the Russian Orthodox Church, under pressure from the "people" to gain further Bible knowledge, undertook its own synod translation, doing so with guidelines that were carefully crafted to insure that expressions used would conform to church views. See w97 10/1 pg. 12.
1859 C.E. Konstantin von Tischendorf, a gifted German linguist, finds the oldest known complete copy of the Christian Greek Scriptures in a monastery at the base of Mount Sinai. It became known as the Codex Sinaiticus and was probably produced 50-years before Jerome completed the Latin Vulgate. Tischendorf published it, thus making it accessible to scholars. See w97 10/15 pgs. 8-12.
1870 C.E. C.T. Russell and a group from Allegheny, Penn. U.S.A. begin a systematic study of the Bible. Italy is established as a kingdom independent from the Vatican.
1871 C.E. January 1st, Germanic Empire established, with William I being declared Caesar or Kaiser. Germany assumes role as KING OF THE NORTH. The interest of this KING OF THE NORTH began to clash with those of the modern KING OF THE SOUTH, the Anglo-American dual world power. The Germanic KING OF THE NORTH was the most lively and mighty champion of the former SIXTH WORLD POWER, Rome. When the German Parliment opened in October of 1871, Emperor William I voiced the conviction that "the new German Empire will be a reliable shield for peace." What does history show? See yw pgs. 263 & 265.
1879 C.E. C.T. Russell publishes first issue of Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ' Presence.
1881 C.E. The Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society is formed by C.T. Russell. At first, the Society distributed Bibles produced by other Bible societies. By 1890 C.E., the Society entered directly into Bible publishing, sponsoring the first of a number of Bible editions. See w97 10/15 pgs. 8-12.
1882 C.E. British government controls Egypt, Egypt is a British dependency, although under its native khedive, the British army stayed in Egypt, and British will was really the law. In 1914 C.E. the Egyptian khedive sided with Turkey, which had joined Germany in the First World War, the British took over in Egypt, deposed the khedive and declared Egypt a British Protectorate. [Britain and the United States of America became opponents of the prophetic KING OF THE NORTH and together they came into the position of the KING OF THE SOUTH.] ** See yw pgs. 220-63.
1884 C.E. Zion's Watch Tower and Tract Society, now the Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society of Pennsylvania, is legally chartered.
1888 C.E. The grandson of William I came to the German imperial throne as William II, commonly called Kaiser Wilhelm. Says one authority: "He was a firm believer in the divine right of kings and of kaisers, (Caesars), in particular. On numerous occasions he spoke of himself as 'the instrument of the Lord,' and took such excessive interest in the army, ... but his selfish ambition had no bounds. It is now greatly conceded that almost from the first day of his reign he began to plan for world domination; that he ... resolved that he, William, would show the world that one man could raise himself to the topmost pinnacle and not only rule Germany, but through Germany might rule the civilized earth." See The Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 29, pg. 333b. He declared that he owed his 'awful responsibility toward the Creator alone, wherefrom no man, no minister, no parliment, no people can relieve the sovereign.' See Ibidem volumn 12, pg. 520b., also see yw pg. 266.
1891 C.E. April 19-25, first convention of Bible Students.
1895 C.E. Kaiser Wilhelm declared that "the German Empire has become a world empire." He mixed himself in with the Middle East, for four years later, a group of German bankers got from the Turkish sultan a concession for building a railroad across Asiatic Turkey from the Staits of Bosporus, opposite Constantinople, southward to Baghdad in Mesopotamia. Looking to further imperial communications, he said: "Germany's future lies upon the water." The total tonage of his navy became second only to that of Britain. The KING OF THE SOUTH looked on nervously. See Ibidem, pgs. 149, 150, also see yw pg. 269.
1909 C.E. Headquarters of WATCH TOWER SOCIETY is transferred from Pittsburg, PA., U.S.A. to Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A.
1914 C.E. End of the "Gentile Times" or "The Appointed Times of the Nations." Jehovah's heavenly Kingdom is established. [KING OF THE NORTH is now Germany, the KING OF THE SOUTH is the alliance between Great Britian and the United States of America, see Daniel 11:27-29], Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife, Countess Sophie Chotek, duchess of Hohenberg were assassinated on June 28th in Sarajevo, Bosnia, (now in Bosnia and Herzegovina), by a Serb nationalist. This action precipitated World War I. ** From 1914 C.E. to the early part of 1918 C.E. or 1,260 days Jehovah's people preached a "sackcloth" message concerning Christendom and the world, in fulfillment of Revelation 11:3, 4. See re pgs. 164-7 pars. 10-18, also see yw pgs. 264-307, also bf pg. 592.
1916 C.E. United States of America becomes the Ally of Great Britian in World War I. [Effectively rescuing the SEVENTH WORLD POWER after Great Britain received the "sword stroke" that could have been fatal, the United States came to the rescue. (Rev. 13:13) See w88 12/15 pgs. 19-20, also see re pgs. 190-2 pars. 13-20. Britain and the United States of America become a dual world power, or KINGS OF THE SOUTH. ** See yw pgs. 104-27 & 220-63, also bf pg. 592.
1917 C.E. Russian clergy hold a General Council of Moscow [Sept.- Oct.] and restore Russian patriarchate abolished by Tzar Peter the Great. Russian revolution, Bolshaviki disestablish the Russian Church as the State Church.
1917 C.E. April 6th United States president Wilson declared a state of war existed with Germany and officially enters with its partner, Britian, in the dual world power alliance of the KINGS OF THE SOUTH fighting against the KINGS OF THE NORTH. See yw pg. 272.
1918 C.E. [June] J.F. Rutherford, second president of the Watch Tower Society, along with seven associate officers are sentenced to long prison terms on false charges. Two dead witnesses in fulfillment of Revelation 11:7-10. See re pgs. 167-8 pars. 19-22. On February 24th, the first delivery of the talk "The World Has Ended--Millions Now Living May Never Die" at Los Angeles, CA. convention. See jv pg. 719.
1919 C.E. [March] J.F. Rutherford, and seven associate officers are exonerated of all charges, Babylon the Great has fallen and releases her captivity of Jehovah's Name People, never to be able to enslave them again. Babylon the Great to be destroyed at Armageddon. Two dead witnesses revived in fulfillment of Revelation 11:11, 12. See re pgs. 169-71 pars. 23-9. First assembly of Bible Students under Watch Tower Society supervision held at Cedar Point, Ohio U.S.A., Sept. 1-8. The Golden Age, [now Awake!] begins publication in October.
1920 C.E. LEAGUE OF NATIONS begins sessions, EIGHTH WORLD POWER. See yw pgs. 104-27.
1922 C.E. Second International Assembly is held at Cedar Point, Ohio U.S.A., Sept. 5-12. Resolution: "Proclamation-A Challenge to World Leaders" is adopted in the first of a series of seven resolutions in successive years. See re pgs. 134, 140, & 173.
1923 C.E. A General Assembly is held in Los Angeles, CA. U.S.A., in August. Resolution: "Proclamation- A Warning to All Christians" is adopted. See re pgs. 134-5, 140, & 173.
1924 C.E. An International Assembly is held in Columbus, Ohio U.S.A., July 20-7. Resolution: "Indictment" is adopted. See re pgs. 138, 141, & 173.
1925 C.E. A General Assembly is held in Indianapolis, IN. U.S.A., August 24-31. Resolution: "Message of Hope" is adopted. See re pgs. 140-1, & 173.
1926 C.E. An International Assembly is held in London, England, May 25-31. Resolution: "A Testamony to the Rulers of the World" is adopted. See re pgs. 147 & 173. The Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society begins printing the Bible on its own presses. See w97 10/15 pgs. 8-12.
1927 C.E. An International Assembly is held in Toronto, Ont. Canada, July 20-6. Resolution: "To the People of Christendom" is adopted. See re pgs. 149, & 173.
1928 C.E. An International Assembly is held in Detroit, Mich. U.S.A., July 30-Aug. 6. Resolution: "Declaration Against Satan and for Jehovah" is adopted, the final resolution in a series of seven. See re pgs. 172-3.
1930 C.E. August 11, the book "Light," in two volumes, is released at Watch Tower headquarters, explaining the Book of Revelation.
1931 C.E. The name "Jehovah's Witnesses is embraced by adopting a resolution at the International Assembly held in Columbus, Ohio U.S.A.
1933 C.E. October 14th, On September 8, 1926, Germany had been admitted to the League of Nations, but Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler marched Germany out of the league on October 14, 1933. Boldly he went from one worldly success to another, annexing Austria and then Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia and forming the Axis powers, including faraway Japan. Earlier that year, in July, Vice-Chancellor Franz von Papen negotiated in Hitler's behalf a concordat with the Vatican and with Pope Pius XI. See yw pg. 274.
1935 C.E. A General Assembly is held in Washington, D.C. U.S.A., May 30-June 3, the talk "The Great Multitude" given on May 31st, applied Revelation 7:9-17 to the "Jonadab" or "other sheep" class.
1939 C.E. [September], Germany as the KING OF THE NORTH begins World War II by attacking and defeating Poland. [LEAGUE OF NATIONS ceases as a world-peace organization.] KING OF THE NORTH strives for world domination, in an effort to re-establish the "Holy Roman Empire." ** See yw pgs. 220-63, also re pgs. 186-98, also bf pg. 561. ["Principle Events in 1939.-- ... on 1 September, at the outbreak of the war, Egypt proclaimed emergency
measures. The following day German nationals were asked to leave the country and to return to Germany." (The Encyclopedia Americana, 1940 Annual, pg. 259b, par. 2) Egypt, though not declaring war on Germany and Italy, played a vital role as the base from which Britain and its allies could launch a campaign against the Italian and German forces. Throughout July and August of 1940, British planes bombed the Fascist Italian base at Tobruk, Libya; and Italian planes bombed the British bases at Mersa Matruh and Alexandria, Egypt, demilitarized the French warships in that port rather than risk a battle with the British Mediteranean Fleet.--Ibidem, 1941 Annual pg. 233.]
1941 C.E. In May, 17-nations are no longer members of the LEAGUE OF NATIONS [being embroiled in World War II, leading to that organizations collapse in December]. The United States of America becomes the ally of Great Britain in World War II, thus continuing the struggle between the KING OF THE NORTH & the KING OF THE SOUTH as prophesied through Daniel at Daniel 11:1-27. See yw pgs. 220-63, also re pgs. 186-98, also bf pg. 592.
1942 C.E. While the world is in the heat of battle during World War II, Jehovah's santuary class held an assembly, with 53-conventions in the United States of America, holding simultaneous sessions from Sept. 18-20. This assembly grew to earth-wide proportions when 80-conventions on 4-continents besides islands joined in having the same program. The president of the Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society spoke on the subject "Peace-Can It Last?" He showed that WW II would end, and that the international peace beast would ascend out of the abyss but that it would finally go off into destruction. Edition of the King James Bible, printed on the Watch Tower Society's presses is released.
1944 C.E. At the "United Announcer's Theocratic Assembly" in Buffalo, New York U.S.A., the Watch Tower edition of the American Standard Version Bible, from the Society's own presses is released on August 10th.
1945 C.E. [October], THE UNITED NATIONS organization is ratified and goes into effect, the LEAGUE OF NATIONS is dissolved on January 10, 1946, when the first General Assembly of the United Nations opened in London, England [symbolic scarlet-colored beast out of the abyss], "the disgusting thing that causes desolation," (Daniel 11:31) since the collapse of the Nazi-Fascist powers at the end of WW II, there has been a rivalry between the superpowers, one representing the KING OF THE NORTH, dominating a socilistic bloc of nations, and the other representing the KING OF THE SOUTH, dominating a largely capitalistic bloc of nations. (Daniel 11:37, 38) See w 97 7/1 pgs. 10-25, also yw pgs. 220-63, also re pgs. 186-98.
1946 C.E. The Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society begins an objective to produce a much needed modern translation of the Bible. See w 97 10/15 pgs. 8-12.
1948 C.E. World Council of Churches is formally organized in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in its first World Assembly, August 22nd-September 5th.
1950 C.E. At the "Theocracy's Increase International Assembly" in Yankee Stadium, New York, N.Y. U.S.A., the New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures is released to a crowd of 82,075 attendees on August 2nd (the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures is released in six volumes, from 1950 to 1960, beginning with the Christian Greek Scriptures). See w 97 10/15 pgs. 8-12.
1951 C.E. "Clean Woprship" International Assemblies held in the United States of America, Australia, France, Far East (Japan), Italy, Germany, Norway, Philipines, and Puerto Rico. [328,572 publishers with 116 countries reporting in 1950, 18% increase over the 1949 service year, 13,238 congregations.] see w51 vol., pgs. 16 & 17.
1952 C.E. "Press on to Maturity" District Assemblies held in select cities and countries. [394,694 publishers with 120 countries reporting in 1951, 17% increase over the 1950 service year, 13,470 congregations.] see w52 vol., pgs. 16 & 17.
1953 C.E. At the "New World Society International Assembly" held in the Yankee Stadium in New York, N.Y., U.S.A., the first in a series of five volumes of the New World Translation of the Hebrew Scriptures is released to a crowd of 132,811 attendees on July 22nd. this series was completed in 1960. [426,704 publishers with 127 countries reporting in 1952, 11% increase over the 1951 service year, 13,942 congregations.] see w53 vol., pgs. 16 & 17.
1954 C.E. 80 District Assemblies held world-wide, The United States of America, the islands of the Caribbean, Central & South America, Japan. [468,106 publishers with 121 countries reporting in 1953, 10% increase over the 1952 service year, 14,163 congregations.] see w54 vol., pgs. 21-25.
1955 C.E. "Triumphant Kingdom" Assemblies held in the United States of America, islands of the Caribbean, France, Germany, Italy, Liberia, Nigeria, South Africa, and Zambia. [525,924 publishers with 161 countries reporting in 1954, 12% increase over the 1953 service year, 14,531 congregations.] see w55 vol., pgs. 27-29.
1956 C.E. District Assemblies held in the United States of America, Alaska, Argentina, Australia, Far East, Fiji, India (3),Japan, Philippines, Taiwan. [570,694 publishers with 158 countries reporting in 1955, 8.5% increase over the 1954 service year, 16,044 congregations.] see w56 vol., pgs. 24-26.
1957 C.E. "Life-Giving Wisdom" District Assemblies held in the United States of America, Far East, Italy, Japan, Liberia, and Taiwan. [591,556 publishers with 162 countries reporting in 1956, 3.6% increase over the 1955 service year, 16,240 congregations.] see w57 vol., pgs. 24-26.
1958 C.E. "Divine Will International Assembly" of Jehovah's Witnesses held in the Yankee Stadium and New York Polo Grounds simultaneously, July 27-Aug. 3rd. On Aug. 1st. an audience of 194,418 adopts the resolution, which from paragraph 5 onward calls attention to the wicked world build up "since the founding of the city of Babylon." On Aug. 3rd., a public audience of 253,922 hear the Watch Tower Society president speak on the subject "God's Kingdom Rules - Is the World's End Near?" On July 30th. 7,136 were baptized, also the president released volume IV of the New World Translation of the Hebrew Scriptures to a crowd of 150,282. [653,273 publishers with 164 countries reporting in 1957, 10% increase over the 1956 service year, 16,883 congregations.] see w58 vol., pgs. 28-30.
1959 C.E. "Awake Ministers" District Assemblies held in the United States of America, Africa, Belgium, Ghana, Liberia, South Africa, and Zambia. [717,088 publishers with 175 countries reporting in 1958, 9.8% increase over the 1957 service year, 17,878 congregations.] see w59 vol., pgs. 20-22.
1960 C.E. "Peace-Pursuing" District Assemblies held in the United States of America, American Samoa, and the Philippines. [803,482 publishers with 175 countries reporting in 1959, 12% increase over the 1958 service year, 19,982 congregations.] see w60 vol., pgs. 20-22.
1961 C.E. At the "United Worshippers" District Assembly in the Yankee Stadium, the president of the Watch Tower Society released the revised edition of the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, in one volume on June 23rd. Assemblies also held in Australia, the Bahamas, Canada, Denmark, Britain, El Salvador, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, the Philippines, and Zambia. [851,378 publishers with 179 countries reporting in 1960, 6% increase over the 1959 service year, 21,008 congregations.] see w61 vol., pgs. 20-22.
1961 C.E. Third assembly of the World Council of Churches is held in New Delhi, India, Nov. 18-Dec. 6th., the Russian Orthodox Church applies and is made a member of the World Council. The council membership now includes 196-church bodies. See bf pg. 491.
1962 C.E. In Vatican City the second ecumenical Vatican Council is opened by Pope John XXIII, with many non-Roman Catholic delegate observers present, on Oct. 11th. But on Dec. 8th., Pope John XXIII adjourned the council until Sept. 8th., 1963.
1962 C.E. "Courageous Ministers" District Assemblies held in the United States of America, Brazil, Canada, Columbia, El Salvador, and India. [884,587 publishers with 185 countries reporting in 1961, 3.9% increase over the 1960 service year, 21,557 congregations.] see w62 vol., pgs. 22-25.
1963 C.E. Under the date of April 11th., at Vatican City, Pope John XXIII published his encyclical entitled "Pacem in Terris" and in it he praised the United Nations Organization. He died on June 3rd., after receiving many blood transfusions in May. See bf pg. 544 par. 5 - pg. 545 par. 1.
1963 C.E. "Everlasting Good News" Assemblies held in a world tour 24-cities. [920,920 publishers with 189 countries reporting in 1962, 4.1% increase over the 1961 service year, 22,166 congregations.] see w63 vol., pgs. 24-27.
1964 C.E. "Fruitage of the Spirit" Assemblies held throughout the United States & Canada, also in El Salvador, Liberia, Nigeria, and the Solomon Islands. [956,648 publishers with 194 countries reporting in 1963, 3.9% increase over the 1962 service year, 22,761 congregations.] see w64 vol., pgs. 24-27.
1965 C.E. "Word of Truth" Assemblies heldin the United States, Canada, Belgium, Fiji, Ireland, and Norway. [1,001,870 publishers with 194 countries reporting in 1964, 4.7% increase over the 1963 service year, 23,483 congregations.] see w65 vol., pgs. 22-25.
1966 C.E. "God's Sons of Liberty" District Assemblies held in the United States, Canada, British Isles, Argentina, Australia, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Newfoundland, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Zambia. [1,034,268 publishers with 197 countries reporting in 1965, 3.2% increase over the 1964 service year, 24,158 congregations.] see w66 vol., pgs. 20-23.
1967 C.E. "Disciple Making" District Assemblies held in the United States, Canada, British Isles, Argentina, Brazil, El Salvador, Israel, Nigeria, Puerto Rico, and Zambia. [1,058, 675 publishers with 199 countries reporting in 1966, 2.4% increase over the 1965 service year, 24,910 congregations.] see w67 vol., pgs. 24-27.
1968 C.E. "Good News for All Nations" District Assemblies held in United States, Canada, British Isles, El Salvador, and Zambia. [1,094,280 publishers with 197 countries reporting in 1967, 3.4% increase over the 1966 service year, 25,206 congregations.] see w68 vol., pgs. 24-27.
1969 C.E. "Peace on Earth" International Assemblies held in the United States, Canada, England, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Korea, Japan, the Philippines, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, Tahiti, Hawaii, Burma, Nigeria, El Salvador, Liberia, and Mexico. [1,155,826 publishers with 200 countries reporting in 1968, 5.6% increase over the 1967 service year, 25,409 congregations.] see w69 vol., pgs. 22-25.
1970 C.E. "Men of Goodwill" District Assemblies held in the United States, Canada, British Isles, Brazil, Fiji, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, and Senegal. [1,256,784 publishers with 203 countries reporting in 1969, 8.7% increase over the 1968 service year, 25,694 congregations.] see w70 vol., pgs. 22-25.
1971 C.E. "Divine Name" District Assemblies held in the United States, Canada, British Isles, Bahamas, and Nigeria. [1,384,782 publishers with 206 countries reporting in 1970, 10.2% increase over the 1969 service year, 26,524 congregations.] see w71 vol., pgs. 26-29.
1972 C.E. "Divine Rulership" Assemblies held in the United States, Canada, British Isles, and Greenland. [1,510,245 publishers with 207 countries reporting in 1971, 9.1% increase over the 1970 service year, 27,154 congregations.] see w72 vol., pgs. 22-25.
1973 C.E. "Divine Victory" International Assemblies held in the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia, Middle and South America, the South Pacific, and Africa. [1,596,442 publishers with 208 countries reporting in 1972, 5.7% increase over the 1971 service year, 28,407 congregations.] see w73 vol., pgs. 24-27.
1974 C.E. "Divine Purpose" District Assemblies held in the United States, Canada, British Isles, Chile, and Columbia. [1,656,673 publishers with 206 countries reporting in 1973, 3.8% increase over the 1972 service year, 31,850 congregations.] see w74 vol., pgs. 27-30.
1975 C.E. "Divine Sovereignty" District Assemblies held in the United States, Canada, British Isles, Chile, Greece, El Salvador, and Portugal. [1,880,713 publishers with 207 countries reporting in 1974, 13.5% increase over the 1973 service year, 34,576 congregations.] see w75 vol., pgs. 24-27.
1976 C.E. "Sacred Service" District Assemblies held in the United States, Canada, Crete, El Salvador, Greece, and Spain. [2,062,449 publishers with 210 countries reporting in 1975, 9.7% increase over the 1974 service year, 38,256 congregations.] see w76 vol., pgs. 20-23.
1977 C.E. "Joyful Workers" District Assemblies held in the United States, Canada, British Isles, El Salvador, Mali, Peru, and the Solomon Islands. [2,138,537 publishers with 210 countries reporting in 1976, 3.7% increase over the 1975 service year, 40,155 congregations.] see w77 vol., pgs. 20-23.
1978 C.E. "Victorious Faith" International Conventions held in the United States, Canada, British Isles, Central America, South America, Caribbean Islands, Northern Europe, Central and Western Europe, Southern Europe, Asia-Orient, Hawaii, South Pacific, and Africa. [2,117,194 publishers with 216 countries reporting in 1977, -1.0% decrease from the 1976 service year, 41,635 congregations.] see w78 vol., pgs. 24-27.
1979 C.E. "Living Hope" District Conventions held in the United States, El Salvadore, and Liberia. [2,096,698 publishers with 205 countries reporting in 1978, -1.4% decrease from the 1977 service year, 42,255 congregations.] see w79 vol., pgs. 18-21.
1980 C.E. "Divine Love" District Conventions held in the United States, Austria, France, Italy, and Japan. [2,097,070 publishers with 205 countries reporting in 1979, .5% increase over the 1978 service year, 42,600 congregations.] see w80 vol., pgs. 18-21.
1981 C.E. "Kingdom Loyalty" District Conventions held in the United States, and Madeira. [2,175,403 publishers with 205 countries reporting in 1980, 3.7% increase over the 1979 service year, 43,181 congregations.] see w81 vol., pgs. 26-29.
1982 C.E. "Kingdom Truth" District Conventions held in the United States, Britain, Ireland, and Canada. [2,247,486 publishers with 206 countries reporting in 1981, 3.3% increase over the 1980 service year, 43,870 congregations.] see w82 vol., pgs. 26-29.
1983 C.E. "Kingdom Unity" District Conventions held in the United States, Britain, Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, and the Philippines. [2,342,634 publishers with 205 countries reporting in 1982, 4.2% increase over the 1981 service year, 44,953 congregations.] see w83 vol., pgs. 18-21.
1984 C.E. "Kingdom Increase" District Conventions held in the United States, Britain, Ireland, Canada, Brazil, India, and South Africa. [2,652,323 publishers with 205 countries reporting in 1983, 6.8% increase over the 1982 service year, 46,235 congregations.] see w84 vol., pgs. 20-23.
1985 C.E. "Integrity Keepers" District Conventions held in the United States, Britain, Ireland, Canada, Argentina, Columbia, Germany, Haiti, Kenya, New Zealand, Peru, the Philippines, South Africa, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Brazil, Greece, and Poland. [2,842,531 publishers with 203 countries reporting in 1984, 7.1% increase over the 1983 service year, 47,869 congregations.] see w85 vol., pgs. 20-25.
1986 C.E. "Divine Peace" District Conventions held in the United States, Britain, Ireland, Canada, Austria, El Salvador, Ghana, Guinea, Panama, Vanuatu, and Zambia. [2,865,183 publishers with 205 countries reporting in 1985, 6.9% increase over the 1984 service year, 49,716 congregations.] see w86 vol., pgs. 20-25.
1987 C.E. "Trust in Jehovah" District Conventions held in the United States, Britain, Ireland, Canada, Belize, Germany, Liberia, and Papua New Guinea. [3,063,289 publishers with 208 countries reporting in 1986, 6.9% increase over the 1985 service year, 52,177 congregations.] see w87 vol., pgs. 10-13.
1988 C.E. "Divine Justice" District Conventions held in the United States, Britain, Ireland, Canada, Austria, Brazil, the Caribbean, Greece, Greenland, Hawaii, Italy, Japan, Korea, Myanmar, Senegal, South Africa, and Spain. [3,237,751 publishers with 210 countries reporting in 1987, 5.7% increase over the 1986 service year, 54,911 congregations.] see w88 vol., pgs. 12-15.
1989 C.E. "Godly Devotion" District Conventions held in the United States, Britain, Ireland, Canada, Argentina, El Salvador, Italy, and Poland. [3,430,926 publishers with 212 countries reporting in 1988, 6.0% increase over the 1987 service year, 57,670 congregations.] see w89 vol., pgs. 4-7.
1990 C.E. "Pure Language" District Convention held in the United States, Britain, Ireland, Canada, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia. [3,624,773 publishers with 212 countries reporting in 1989, 5.6% increase over the 1988 service year, 60,192 congregations.] see w90 vol., pgs. 20-23.
1991 C.E. "Lovers of Freedom" District Conventions held in the United States,Britain, Ireland, and Canada. [3,846,311 publishers with 212 countries reporting in 1990, 6.1% increase over the 1989 service year, 63,016 congregations.] see w91 vol., pgs. 18-21.
1992 C.E. "Light Bearers" District Conventions held in the United States, Britain, Ireland, and Canada. [4,071,954 publishers with 211 countries reporting in 1991, 5.9% increase over the 1990 service year, 66,207 congregations.] see w92 vol., pgs. 10-13.
1993 C.E. "Divine Teaching" District Conventions held in the United States, Britain, Ireland, and Canada. [4,289,737 publishers with 229 countries reporting in 1992, 5.3% increase over the 1991 service year, 69,558 congregations.] see w93 vol., pgs. 12-15.
1994 C.E. "Godly Fear" District Conventions held in the United States, Britain, Ireland, and Canada. [4,483,900 publishers with 231 countries reporting in 1993, 4.5% increase over the 1992 service year, 73,070 congregations.] see w94 vol., pgs. 12-15.
1995 C.E. "Joyful Praisers" District Conventions held in the United States, Britain, Ireland, and Canada. [4,695,111 publishers with 232 countries reporting in 1994, 5% increase over the 1993 service year, 75,573 congregations.] see w95 vol., pgs. 12-15.
1996 C.E. "Messengers of Godly Peace" District Conventions held in the United States, Britain, Ireland, and Canada. [4,950,344 publishers with 232 countries reporting in 1995, 5% increase over the 1994 service year, 78,620 congregations.] see w96 vol., pgs. 12-15.
1997 C.E. "Faith in God's Word" District Conventions held in the United States, Britain, Ireland, and Canada. [5,167,258 publishers with 233 countries reporting in 1996, 4.4% increase over the 1995 service year, 81,908 congregations.] see w97 vol., pgs. 18-21.
1998 C.E. "God's Way of Life" District Conventions held in the United States, Britian, Ireland, and Canada. [5,888,650 publishers with 233 countries reporting in 1997, 3.6% increase over the 1996 service year, 87,644 congregations.] see w98 2/15 pgs. 30-1, also see w99 1/1 pgs. 12-15.
1999 C.E. "God's Prophetic Word " District Conventions held in the United States, Britian, Ireland, and Canada
2000 C.E. "Doers of God's Word " District Conventions held in the United States, Britian, Ireland, and Canada
2001 C.E. "Teachers of God's Word " District Conventions held in the United States, Britian, Ireland, and Canada
2002 C.E. "Zealous Kingdom Proclaimers "
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